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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Rosa


A rose is a perennial flowering shrub or vine of the genus Rosa, within the family rosaceae, that contains over 100 species. The species form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp thorns. Most are native to Asia, with smaller numbers of species native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Natives, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and fragrance. rose parade
The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, with sharply toothed oval shaped leaflets. The plants fleshy edible fruit is called a rose hip. Plants range in size from tiny miniature roses to climbers that can reach 20 metres. Species from different parts of the world easily hybridize, giving rise to the many types of garden roses.
The name originates from Latin rosa, borrowed through Oscan from colonial Greek in southern Italy: rhodon (Aeolic form: wrodon), from Aramaic wurrda, from Assyrian wurtinnu, from Old Iranian *warda (cf. Armenian vard, Avestan warda, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr). intuit proseries
Attar of rose is the steam-extracted essential oil from rose flowers that has been used in perfumes for centuries. Rose water, made from the rose oil, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. Rose hips are sometimes made into jam, jelly and marmalade or brewed for tea, mainly for their vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce an oil used in skin products.

Rose Family

Worldwide in distribution, the rose family contains about 107 genera and 3,100 species. About 70 genera of the rose family are cultivated for food, ornament, flowers, timber, or other uses. Although worldwide in distribution, the family is most abundant in north temperate regions and contains many of the most important fruit trees grown in temperate areas. These include apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, apricot, almond, nectarine, loquat, and quince. The rambling, usually thorny blackberry, dewberry, and loganberry are members of a genus of the rose family that also includes the raspberry. The strawberry is also a member of the family. In addition, the family contains many important ornamentals: cinquefoil, hawthorn, spiraea, cotoneaster, firethorn, flowering cherry, flowering quince, and rowan.


Different colored roses have different meanings.
  • Red Rose- Love, Respect
  • Pink Rose- Grace, Gentle Love
  • Dark Pink Rose- Gratitude, Appreciation
  • Light Pink Rose- Sympathy, Admiration
  • White Rose- Innocence, Secrecy, or Friendship
  • Yellow Rose- Happiness, Friendship. In German-speaking countries yellow can mean jealousy.
  • Yellow Rose with Red tips - Falling in Love
  • Orange Rose- Passion
  • Burgundy Rose- Beauty
  • Green Rose- Calm
  • Blue Rose- Mystery
  • Black Rose- Death, or Re-birth after death
  • Purple Rose- Protection

Scientific Classification

Roses make up the family Rosaceae of the order Rosales. The representative genus is Rosa. Hybrid perpetuals, or remontant roses, are derived mainly from the hybrid species Rosa x borboniana; polyantha roses from the hybrid species Rosa x rehderana; tea roses from Rosa x odorata; and China roses from Rosa x odorata and Rosa chinensis.


Roses may be grown in any good, well-drained soil. Although different varieties respond differently to a given soil and climate, sandy soils are usually not as favourable as clay soils, warm temperatures are always preferred, and the plants grow best when not set among other plants. Cow manure is the preferred fertilizer, but other organic fertilizers, especially composts, are also used. The plants usually require severe pruning, which must be adapted to the intended use of the flowers. Most rose varieties are grown by budding on an understock (lower portion of a plant) propagated from seeds or cuttings. Roses must be sprayed frequently with insect poisons and fungicides. Get Free Roses Plant

Rose Genus and Hybrids

Roses of the rose genus are prickly shrubs, sometimes with scrambling or trailing stems. The leaves are pinnately compound with stipules (leaf-like appendages) fused to the base of the leaf-stalk. The flowers have five sepals and (in wild species) five petals, numerous stamens, and pistils. The flowers come in various colours, including shades of red, pink, yellow, and white. The fruit is the well-known hip, a swollen and thinly fleshed hypanthium (cup-shaped receptacle) enclosing the dry achenes.
The rose has been grown and appreciated for its fragrance and beauty since ancient times, and today is the most popular and widely cultivated garden flower in the world. Many species are important in perfumery, such as the damask rose, and others have applications in medicine. The genus contains some 100 species, most of them native to the North Temperate Zone. Some roses are cultivated in their natural form, but most of the more than 20,000 cultivars are the result of careful hybridization and selection from a few species. The cultivars are classed either as old roses—that is, plants that have essentially reached the end of their horticultural development, with no new varieties having been introduced in the past 60 years—or as contemporary roses—that is, plants that are currently being hybridized and selected for new forms. Several hundred new contemporary rose cultivars are introduced each year.
The classification of cultivated roses is complicated, because of the great numbers of cultivars involved and the amount of artificial hybridization that has taken place. Generally, the classes of old roses are based on selection from one or a few ancestral species or hybrids. Among the popular classes are the hybrid perpetuals, or remontant roses, which produce large, fragrant double flowers in early summer and fewer flowers in autumn. The class of polyantha roses includes many dwarf forms, with flowers produced in dense clusters. Tea roses and China roses are old-rose classes from which the contemporary hybrid tea roses have been derived through hybridization with hybrid perpetual roses. Hybrid tea roses are less hardy but more recurrent-blooming than the old hybrid perpetuals and have a much wider variety of colour and flower form. Many other contemporary-rose classes are based on the hybrid tea roses—for example, floribunda roses were derived from crosses between hybrid tea roses and hybrid polyantha roses, the latter in turn being based on crosses between the old polyantha roses and hybrid tea roses.

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